Brookings Institution | Disciplinary Referrals, Teachers, and the Sources of Racial Disciplinary Disproportionalities


In his latest research commentary, Jing Liu, assistant professor of education, explores the persistent presence of racial disproportionality in schools. 

It is these ‘moment-by-moment’ interactions that ultimately lead to the observed racial disparities in school discipline. We find a clear and consistent pattern in which Black and Hispanic students are punished more severely than white students who were involved in the same incident and had the same prior disciplinary histories

Read the rest on the Brookings Instution website.